Presentation Abstracts

Session I: Review of Recent Workshops and Roadmappping Projects

Benjamin Shapiro
Comments on NSF Workshop on Control and System Integration of Micro- and Nanoscale Systems, March 2004

Metin Sitti
Comments on the NSF Workshop on Future Directions in Nano-Scale Systems, Dynamics and Control, June 2003

Ranga Komanduri
Comments on the National Science Foundation-European Community Workshop on Nanomanufacturing and Processing, January 2002

Kevin Lyons
Metrology at the Nanoscale: What Are The Grand Challenges?
Micro- and nano-metrology provides the means to measure and characterize process and product performance and covers an expanse of topics including instrumentation, measurement methods off-line and in-process production applications, and standards. To meet the needs of this emerging integrated manufacturing community it is important that research on scale-up of nanotechnology for high rate production, reliability, robustness, yield, efficiency and cost issues for manufacturing products and services be pursued. To achieve this, new research directions must include a systems approach that encompasses the characterization of instrumentation, three dimensional metrology, and production hardened metrology. This talk will illustrate the value of metrology and the role of standards to facilitate product realization.

Tihamer Toth-Fejel
Four Approaches to Productive Nanosystems
The Foresight/Battelle roadmap for Productive Nanosystems was launched in late 2005 to map the technological achievements necessary to achieve Richard Feynman's vision. Productive Nanosystems are those manufacturing systems which produce atomically precise nanoscale products because they themselves are composed of atomically precise nanoscale parts. I will discuss the pro and con of each of the four main approaches: (a) Structural DNA — based on the M13; (b) Bis-Peptide nanostructures; (c) Tip-Based Nanofabrication; and (d) Diamondoid Mechanosynthesis.

Session II: Integrated Nanomanufacturing Processes

Martha Grover Gallivan
An Experimental Design Approach to Process Design
When designing a new process, one rarely has a perfect model, but in the case of nanoscale systems, there may be several candidate models with unknown coefficients, and none will be "correct." However, mechanistic understanding will be encoded in the models, such that they can be useful in process design. One way to approach this problem is to use the set of candidate models, along with the available experimental data, to design the next experiment. We apply several statistical approaches the microstructure design of metal oxides by a chemical vapor deposition process.

Panagiotis Christofides
Control and Optimization of Multiscale Process Systems
In this talk, I will present an overview of recently developed methods for control and optimization of complex materials manufacturing processes described by multiscale distributed parameter models. Specifically, I will primarily discuss methods for feedback, covariance and predictive control of surface roughness in thin film growth using both kinetic Monte-Carlo models and stochastic partial differential equations. I will use examples of thin film growth processes to motivate the development of these methods and illustrate their application.

Babatunde Ogunnaike
Design and Process Control Issues in Nanomanufacturing
The presentation will raise awareness of some key process issues involved in answering the following question: In manufacturing products designed for specific end-use applications (e.g. polymer nanocomposites) or in the production of self-assembled nanomaterials with desirable structural characteristics (particle size, shape, density, and spatial self-organization), what strategy is required for effective control of product properties and assuring acceptable end-use performance?

Jye-Chyi (JC) Lu
Quality, Statistics and Reliability in Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology has received a considerable amount of attention from various fields and become a multi-disciplinary subject for new research ventures. It is expected to affect every sector of our economy and daily life. Besides physics, chemistry, biology and other technologies, methods used in solving quality, statistics and reliability (QSR) problems have helped the rapid development of nanotechnology in terms of data collection, treatment-effect estimation, hypothesis testing and process control. This presentation reviews examples of QSR techniques used in nanoscale applications. Topics include experimental design, uncertainty modeling, process optimization and monitoring, reliability and areas for future research efforts.

Mark Tuominen
The National Nanomanufacturing Network as an Emerging Resource for Addressing Research Challenges
The National Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN), funded by the NSF, is a community-driven open source network that facilitates collaboration and disseminates information among the nanomanufacturing research, education and development community. Nanomanufacturing research and development requires the collaboration of interdisciplinary partners, information exchange and the integration of diverse manufacturing techniques. The NNN strives to facilitate connections between nanomanufacturing centers, projects and experts from academic, industrial and government institutions through focused meetings and cyberinfrastructure. The NNN offers a network of expertise and technologies, thematic workshops on emergent nanomanufacturing methods, educational opportunities in nanomanufacturing and a web-based nanomanufacturing information clearinghouse, InterNano.

Thomas Edgar
Monitoring and Control of Nanoscale Semiconductor Manufacturing
Semiconductor manufacturing increasingly relies on advanced process modeling, monitoring, and control in order to be competitive in the global market due to shrinking feature size (less than 0.04 µm linewidth) and increasing wafer diameter (up to 12 inches). Recipe optimization, multivariable control strategy, selection of monitoring and control sensors, and real-time monitoring and fault detection can be integrated to solve operational problems in a cost-effective way.

Benjamin Shapiro
On-Chip Feedback Control of Micro- and Nano-Scale Objects
This talk will be about flow control on the micro-scale, inside MEMS devices for precisely handling liquids and micro- and nano-scale objects. Control is achieved by observing the location of objects in real time, computing a flow field that moves all objects from where they are to where they should be, applying actuator actions that achieve this flow field, thus continuously repeating a feedback loop that drives all objects to their target locations. I will demonstrate experimental results for steering one and multiple micro-scale objects on chip to 1 um accuracy, and will then discuss improvements required to steer nano-scale objects.

Richard Wysk
Nano Scale Fabrication: Creating Commercially Viable Nano Manufacturing
This research focuses on the development of the Nano-Electromachning (NanoEM) process in a non-vacuum environment for commercial applications. The NanoEMprocess has the potential to open a new vista for fabricating nano-scale products. In order to overcome the limiting feature of the nanoEM process — the electrode size — this research proposes the use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as the electrode material. Preliminary experimental investigations illustrate the technological feasibility of the process. Current work on the project includes controlled experiments and simulation modeling of the nanoEM process in order to understand and analyze the material removal mechanisms involved in the process.

Julie Chen
Precision vs. Functionality: Identifying Realistic Nanomanufacturing Targets
Nanomanufacturing addresses the control — e.g., size, positioning, orientation — of materials and components at the nanoscale, over large areas and at high rates. Many devices such as optical arrays require very precise, regular patterns. There are, however, many other applications that rely on nanoscale features, but do not require the same level of precision, examples of which abound in nature. One example is the fiber or pore structure in tissue scaffolds; another is a robust sensor that can work in a "dirty" environment. How do we effectively measure the level of precision for multiple parameters really needed for functionality?

Session III: Manufacturing of Nanoscale Materials

Raymond Adomaitis
Atomic Layer Deposition Processes for Nanomanufacturing
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a self-limiting, sequential deposition process that allows for the creation of ultra-thin films. In this presentation, we will review representative applications of ALD in the context of emerging nanomanufacturing technologies and will specifically discuss the challenges of simulating these processes, particularly in cases where non-ideal ALD growth rates are encountered.

Metin Sitti
Micro/Nanomanufactured Polymer Fibers for New Nano-Enabled Products
This talk is focused on manufacturing of polymer micro/nanofibers for new nano-enabled products. First, a tip-based nanomanufacturing process is proposed to deposit or spin precisely aligned and controlled single or an array of polymer micro/nanofibers on planar or nonplanar surfaces. These polymer fiber arrays could be used as biological tissue scaffolds and new smart fabrics. Next, polymer micro/nanofibers are manufactured using lithographic methods for gecko foot-hairs inspired repeatable adhesives. Manufactured elastomer fiber arrays show strong and repeatable adhesion and friction behavior on smooth and micro/nanoscale rough surfaces, and they are being used to build new miniature climbing robot attachment materials, reversible tissue adhesives, and new gripping adhesives for gloves.

Ranga Komanduri
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Composites For MEMS Structural Applications: A Systems Approach
Carbon nanotubes have been envisioned for bulk applications, such as batteries for automobile industry, structural elements for aircraft industry. In view of the high-cost of this material and non-availability in large quantities at reasonable cost, it appears the emphasis should be on micro applications. The mechanical properties alone make CNTs a unique material as they are stiff at the same time highly flexible, strong yet highly deformable, and has very high damping properties. Composites made of aligned CNT should be candidate material for MEMS structural applications. These extraordinary properties, together with their small hollow tubular shape, high aspect ratio, and low density make CNTs very attractive for the development of advanced composites (metal, ceramic, and polymer matrixes) for multifunctional structural MEMS applications.

Sanjay Joshi
STEP-AND-GROW Approach for Precisely Positioned Nanowire Structure Fabrication
A novel fabrication approach for forming precisely positioned nanowire array structures is introduced. The approach is suitable for potentially economical and environmentally safe manufacturing. For the demonstration of this approach, polyaniline nanowires were synthesized using an electro-chemical deposition technique and a process we term the step-and-grow method. The synthesized PANI nanowires showed reasonable ranges of electrical conductivities (e.g., 25 S/cm for a 200 nm wide, 200 nm high, 10 um long nanowire). It is shown that the polydimethylsiloxane stepping template mold used for our step-and-grow nanowire synthesis process can be used at least up to 40 times without degradation.

Session IV: Industry Perspectives on Nanomanufacturing

Daniel Herr
Emerging Research Materials and Process
Today's perception that manufacturing costs and percent device variability will increase exponentially with scaling and functional diversification is pervasive. Projected fabrication requirements increasingly challenge our ability to achieve reliable system performance. Extensible nanomanufacturing options are needed that enable: Centered, low-variability fabrication technologies; new cost curves for nanoelectronics fabrication; and enhanced system value through integrated functional diversification. An optimal patterning strategy will reflect the interdependence between application and design specific requirements with a synergistic set of exposure tool, mask, and patterning material options. This talk will consider emerging research materials and processes that exhibit potential for enabling extensible nanofabrication.

Jeff Large
Nanofabrication Using Gas-Assisted Focused Ion Beam Techniques for the Semiconductor Industry
An overview of the usage of gas-assisted focused ion beam techniques as applied to semiconductor manufacturing.

Alan Rae
Manufacturing New Materials
As companies move to manufacturing nanomaterials there are some general and specific areas that must be addressed. Knowing realistically where you are in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) gives you the basis to develop a realistic plan to take your products to market. Knowing the market dynamics is also critical to help you plan a realistic scale-up.

Michele Ostraat
Challenges in Nanomanufacturing: Opportunities for Process Improvements and Continuing Needs in Occupational and Environmental Safety and Health
With a tripling of the U.S. government investment in nanotechnology research over the past 7 years to $1.4B in 2008, there is increased recognition that the U.S. must invest in nanotechnology applied research and commercialization if the U.S. is to remain a world leader in nanotechnology. Although commercialization has largely been an industry arena, several unique and critical challenges remain as significant barriers. In this talk, several current challenges and opportunities in nanomanufacturing will be highlighted, including the scale-up of reproducible nanomaterials at commercial quantities for product development, nanomaterials engineering to reduce processing costs and nanotechnology-enabled processing aids to reduce energy requirements, and continued research needs to address unique challenges for occupational and environmental health and safety.

Session V: Metrology for Nanomanufacturing

Michael Postek
Key Elements for the Future of Nanomanufacturing: Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards
Critical to the realization of robust nanomanufacturing is the development of the necessary instrumentation, metrology, and standards. Integration of the instruments, their interoperability, and appropriate information management are also critical elements that must be considered for viable nanomanufacturing. Advanced instrumentation, metrology and standards will allow the physical dimensions, properties, functionality, and purity of the materials, processes, tools, systems, products, and emissions that will constitute nanomanufacturing to be measured and characterized. This will in turn enable production to be scaleable, controllable, predictable, and repeatable to meet market needs.

Craig Prater
Nanoscale Thermal Analysis
Nanoscale materials characterization is critical to successful nanomanufacturing. Nanoscale Thermal Analysis (NanoTA) has been developed to characterize and identify materials with sub-100 nm resolution. Based on atomic force microscopy, NanoTA employs a temperature controlled probe tip to locally heat nanoscale regions of a sample. The tip can detect local thermodynamic transitions (e.g., glass transitions, melting transitions) which characterize key properties of a material. In heterogeneous systems with known components, NanoTA can be employed to uniquely identify components from a material's thermal signature. NanoTA has been successfully used to characterize nanoscale materials for pharmaceuticals, polymers, printing inks, and consumer products.

Satish Bukkapatnam
Sensor-Based Quality And Performance Monitoring Systems For Nanomanufacturing Processes
Quality considerations are becoming critical issues in several nanomanufacturing operations. For instance, in microelectronic manufacturing, device features are decreasing to sub 30 nm regimes, associated with an increase in the number of levels and layers being processed. Assurance of planarity of patterned thin films of interconnects, interlayer dielectrics, etc. on a silicon wafer is becoming important for improving wafer yield and advancing device densities. We report the use of wireless vibration sensors for monitoring material removal rates, planarity and finish (Ra ~ 1-50nm) during chemical mechanical planarization and electrochemical polishing processes. These processes are commonly used for achieving planarity of microlectronic devices in the semiconductor industry. We show that these sensors can be placed in close proximity to polishing zone, and the signal features extracted from considering the complex (nonlinear stochastic) dynamics underlying the measured wireless sensors signals are highly sensitive to variations in material removal rates, planarity and surface roughness, as well as in-process variations in process parameters (e.g., slurries) from their set values.

Srinivasa Salapaka
Systems Tools in Scanning Probe Microscopy
The Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) is an instance of the impact of nanotechnology which makes it possibleto image and interrogate sample properties at atomic scale as well as promises control and manipulation atthat scale. This talk will focus on some applications of system theoretic tools towards SPM that include robusthigh bandwidth nanopositioning, alternate signals sample-profile estimation and designs that achievesubstantial improvements in imaging and detection bandwidths, and correcting for artifacts andmisinterpretations in imaging. Systems ideas for a better understanding of some existing technology andovercoming some mistaken fundamentally-limiting technological hurdles will be presented.

Session VI: Perspectives on Integrated Nanomanufacturing from Research Center Directors

Placid Ferreira
Systems and Integration Challenges in NanoManufacturing
In this presentation we will look at challenges in nanomanufacturing that accrue from a number of sources: Emerging product paradigms that simultaneously emphasize nanoscale material hetrogeniety and miniaturization; Simultaneous need for process scalability and flexibity; Need for high process robustness; Need for multiple process steps with nanoscale-level registration and other such requirements.

James Watkins
Materials and Process Integration Challenges for the Fabrication of Nanotechnology Enabled Devices
The fabrication of nanotechnology enabled devices requires not only the creation and functionalization of well defined nanostructures, but also practical routes for the two and three dimensional integration of these structures with components and systems across multiple length scales. In this talk I will discuss research challenges for achieving this goal and the Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing's efforts towards integration of nanofabrication processes for sub-30 nm elements based on directed self-assembly, nanoimprint lithography, high fidelity 3-D polymer template replication, and conformal deposition at the nanoscale with Si wafer technologies and high-rate roll-to-roll based production tools to yield materials and devices for applications including computing, energy conversion, medical diagnostics.

Robert Hocken
Nano-Manufacturing Within SINAM: Systems Aspects and Metrology
In this presentation I will discuss the systems aspects of the research being conducted at the NSEC called the Center for Scalable Integrated NanoManufacturing. The Center is performing research in a variety of process including nanoimprinting, plasmonic lithography and controlled nanoasssembly. These processes and being integrated with the development of nano CAD systems and test beds with many functions. Key metrology aspects of the various test beds will be discussed and some early results in nanoimprinting and plasmonic lithography presented.

Ahmed Busnaina
Overcoming Barriers to Nanomanufacturing Using Template Directed Assembly of Nanoscale Elements
Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for developing a wide array of new and novel products. However, the transfer of nano-science accomplishments into technology can only occur if we understand and overcome barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. In addition, commercialization of these new devices and materials is hampered by the lack of nanomanufacturing methods. Some of these nanomanufacturing barriers that the CHN is working on are: (1) The scalability of the directed and self assembly processes (such as assemble, detach, and transfer of nanoelements at high rates and over large areas); (2) Reliability and defects (how reliable are nanostructures and what type of defects are expected and how can we mitigate them?); (3) Economics and Life cycle of nanotechnology based products; and (4) Environmental, health and safety of nanomanufacturing. The Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing is addressing these barriers by developing tools and processes that will enable high-rate/high-volume bottom-up, directed, and precise assembly of nanoelements (such as carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, etc.) and polymer nanostructures. The Center conducts template guided and template-less directed assembly of nanoelements to conduct assembly and manufacturing of SWNT switches and interconnects. The Center has developed and fabricated a variety of novel templates that are utilized to conduct fast massive directed assembly of nanoscale elements by controlling the forces required to assemble, detach, and transfer nanoelements at high rates and over large areas. In addition to assembly techniques, the Center is developing transfer methods to move the assembled nanoelements to a secondary substrate. The manufacturing economics associated with scale-up of assembly and transfer processes are also examined through development of various process based cost models. The CHN has also developed effective control strategies to avoid potential exposures to airborne nanoelements and developed recommended practices for working with nanoelements.

Robert Hwang
The DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies: A Science-Based National User Facility to Accelerate Innovation in Nanotechnology
The Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) is a Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences nanoscale science research center operated as a national user facility by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. Through its Core Facility (Albuquerque, NM) and Gateway to Los Alamos Facility (Los Alamos, NM), CINT provides access to tools and expertise to establish the scientific principles that govern the design, performance, and integration of nanostructured materials into the micro- and macro worlds. A unique aspect of our facility is the development of Discovery Platforms that are designed to aid the standardization and integration of nanomaterials into systems and devices.