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Graphene has emerged as one of the most promising two-dimensional crystals, but the future of electronics may include two other nanomaterials, according to a new study by researchers at the University...
A graphene hydraulic ‘nano-press’ has proven its potential to develop 2D materials by applying pressure on the compounds that are trapped between graphene layers. The first-ever 2D...
LightPath Technologies, Inc. ("LightPath", the "Company" or "we"), a leading vertically integrated global manufacturer, distributor and integrator of proprietary optical...
Duane Boning has been named the Clarence J. LeBel Professor of Electrical Engineering. The chair is named for Clarence Joseph LeBel '26, SM '27, who co-founded Audio Devices in 1937, and was a pioneer in recording discs, magnetic media for tapes, and in hearing aids and stethoscopes. “Boning’s teaching is recognized as outstanding at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, and he is a leader in the field of manufacturing and design,” said Anantha Chandrakasan, the Vannevar Bush Professor of Electrical Engineering and head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). “This is fitting recognition of his outstanding contributions to research, teaching, mentoring, and service.” Boning’s research focuses on manufacturing and design, with emphasis on statistical modeling, control, and variation reduction in semiconductor, MEMS, photonic, and nanomanufacturing processes. His early work developed computer integrated manufacturing approaches for flexible design of IC fabrication processes. He also drove the development and adoption of run-by-run, sensor-based, and real-time model-based control methods in the semiconductor industry. He is a leader in the characterization and modeling of spatial variation in IC and nanofabrication processes, including plasma etch and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), where test mask design and modeling tools developed in his group have been commercialized and adopted in industry. Boning served as editor in chief for the IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing from 2001 to 2011, and was named a fellow of the IEEE for contributions to modeling and control in semiconductor manufacturing in 2005. In addition to creating the graduate-level course 6.780J/2.830J (Control of Manufacturing Process), he has lectured in several core EECS subjects, including 6.003 (Signals and Systems) and 6.001 (Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs), and is also an outstanding recitation and laboratory instructor. His teaching has been recognized with the MIT Ruth and Joel Spira Teaching Award. Boning won the Best Advisor Award from the MIT ACM/IEEE student organization in 2012 and the 2016 Capers and Marion McDonald Award for Excellence in Mentoring and Advising in the School of Engineering. Boning served as associate head from Electrical Engineering in EECS from 2004 to 2011. He has previously and presently serves as associate director in the Microsystems Technology Laboratories, where he oversees the information technology and computer-aided design services organization in the laboratories. He is a long-standing and active participant in the MIT Leaders for Global Operations program. Since 2011, he has served as the director for the MIT/Masdar Institute Cooperative Program, fostering many joint activities between MIT and Masdar Institute. From 2011 through 2013, he served as founding faculty lead in the MIT Skoltech Initiative, working to launch the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech). Within MIT, Boning has served on several Institute committees, including as chair of the Committee on Undergraduate Admissions and Financial Aid (CUAFA) in 2007, and he will serve as chair of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program (CUP) in 2016-2017.
MIT researchers have developed low-cost chemical sensors, made from chemically altered carbon nanotubes, that enable smartphones or other wireless devices to detect trace amounts of toxic gases. Using the sensors, the researchers hope to design lightweight, inexpensive radio-frequency identification (RFID) badges to be used for personal safety and security. Such badges could be worn by soldiers on the battlefield to rapidly detect the presence of chemical weapons — such as nerve gas or choking agents — and by people who work around hazardous chemicals prone to leakage. “Soldiers have all this extra equipment that ends up weighing way too much and they can’t sustain it,” says Timothy Swager, the John D. MacArthur Professor of Chemistry and lead author on a paper describing the sensors that was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. “We have something that would weigh less than a credit card. And [soldiers] already have wireless technologies with them, so it’s something that can be readily integrated into a soldier’s uniform that can give them a protective capacity.” The sensor is a circuit loaded with carbon nanotubes, which are normally highly conductive but have been wrapped in an insulating material that keeps them in a highly resistive state. When exposed to certain toxic gases, the insulating material breaks apart, and the nanotubes become significantly more conductive. This sends a signal that’s readable by a smartphone with near-field communication (NFC) technology, which allows devices to transmit data over short distances. The sensors are sensitive enough to detect less than 10 parts per million of target toxic gases in about five seconds. “We are matching what you could do with benchtop laboratory equipment, such as gas chromatographs and spectrometers, that is far more expensive and requires skilled operators to use,” Swager says. Moreover, the sensors each cost about a nickel to make; roughly 4 million can be made from about 1 gram of the carbon nanotube materials. “You really can’t make anything cheaper,” Swager says. “That’s a way of getting distributed sensing into many people’s hands.” The paper’s other co-authors are from Swager’s lab: Shinsuke Ishihara, a postdoc who is also a member of the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics at the National Institute for Materials Science, in Japan; and PhD students Joseph Azzarelli and Markrete Krikorian. Wrapping nanotubes In recent years, Swager’s lab has developed other inexpensive, wireless sensors, called chemiresistors, that have detected spoiled meat and the ripeness of fruit, among other things. All are designed similarly, with carbon nanotubes that are chemically modified, so their ability to carry an electric current changes when exposed to a target chemical. This time, the researchers designed sensors highly sensitive to “electrophilic,” or electron-loving, chemical substances, which are often toxic and used for chemical weapons. To do so, they created a new type of metallo-supramolecular polymer, a material made of metals binding to polymer chains. The polymer acts as an insulation, wrapping around each of the sensor’s tens of thousands of single-walled carbon nanotubes, separating them and keeping them highly resistant to electricity. But electrophilic substances trigger the polymer to disassemble, allowing the carbon nanotubes to once again come together, which leads to an increase in conductivity. In their study, the researchers drop-cast the nanotube/polymer material onto gold electrodes, and exposed the electrodes to diethyl chlorophosphate, a skin irritant and reactive simulant of nerve gas. Using a device that measures electric current, they observed a 2,000 percent increase in electrical conductivity after five seconds of exposure. Similar conductivity increases were observed for trace amounts of numerous other electrophilic substances, such as thionyl chloride (SOCl2), a reactive simulant in choking agents. Conductivity was significantly lower in response to common volatile organic compounds, and exposure to most nontarget chemicals actually increased resistivity. Creating the polymer was a delicate balancing act but critical to the design, Swager says. As a polymer, the material needs to hold the carbon nanotubes apart. But as it disassembles, its individual monomers need to interact more weakly, letting the nanotubes regroup. “We hit this sweet spot where it only works when it’s all hooked together,” Swager says. Resistance is readable To build their wireless system, the researchers created an NFC tag that turns on when its electrical resistance dips below a certain threshold. Smartphones send out short pulses of electromagnetic fields that resonate with an NFC tag at radio frequency, inducing an electric current, which relays information to the phone. But smartphones can’t resonate with tags that have a resistance higher than 1 ohm. The researchers applied their nanotube/polymer material to the NFC tag’s antenna. When exposed to 10 parts per million of SOCl2 for five seconds, the material’s resistance dropped to the point that the smartphone could ping the tag. Basically, it’s an “on/off indicator” to determine if toxic gas is present, Swager says. According to the researchers, such a wireless system could be used to detect leaks in Li-SOCl2 (lithium thionyl chloride) batteries, which are used in medical instruments, fire alarms, and military systems. Alexander Star, a professor of chemistry and bioengineering and clinical and translational science at the University of Pittsburgh, says the researchers’ design for a wireless sensor (or dosimeter) for electrophilic substances could improve soldier safety. “The authors were able to synthesize a [carbon nanotube] composite sensitive to … a class of chemicals of high interest for sensing,” Star says. “This type of device architecture is important for real-life application, due to the fact that a chemical weapon dosimeter worn by military and security personnel requires rapid reading.” The next step, Swager says, is to test the sensors on live chemical agents, outside of the lab, which are more dispersed and harder to detect, especially at trace levels. In the future, there’s also hope for developing a mobile app that could make more sophisticated measurements of the signal strength of an NFC tag: Differences in the signal will mean higher or lower concentrations of a toxic gas. “But creating new cell phone apps is a little beyond us right now,” Swager says. “We’re chemists.” The work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
(AIP) Two committees are staking out divergent stances on funding for the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grant programs—with the House and Senate Small Business Committees both advancing bipartisan proposals to increase the fraction of agencies' extramural RD budgets allocated to these programs...6/21